Buy Highest Quality ACTH 1-39 Peptide Online For Your Scientific Research
Adrenocorticotropic hormone or ACTH is a peptide secreted by the pituitary gland. The peptide has a molecular mass of 45411 Daltons and is composed of molecules C207H308N56O58S1. ACTH is one of the essential compounds in the adrenal and hypothalamic axis. In most cases, the hormone is exuded in situations of stress alongside the corticotropin hormone. When levels of ACTH are high in the system, the release of corticosteroids increases in the system and this occurs where cortisol is released from the adrenal cortex.
ACTH 1-39 has numerous mechanisms of action. However, the common mechanism of action is via activation and binding of the molecules to the cell surface receptors. When extracellular cells undergo activation, it causes biosynthesis and secretion of mineralocorticoids, androgenic steroids and gluco-cortiscosteroids. The adrenocorticotropin hormone is made up of 7-member G-protein coupled receptor. Once the ACTH 1-39 peptide binds to the ligand, the ligand undergoes various conformational changes essential in accentuating production of the enzyme catalase.
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Production of the enzyme adenylate cyclase is crucial because it increases intracellular levels of adenosine monophosphate. An increase in the levels of adenosine monophosphate results in activation of protein kinase A or PKA. When protein kinase A is activated, it induces a complex signaling pathway that results in the initiation of the steroidogenesis process. Here, cholesterol is transformed into different steroids in the body. The pathway which the cholesterol undergoes transformation varies from species to species, and depending on the rank of the species in the food chain the complex the system.
In some cases, it may include aldosterone, corticoids, cortisol, progesterone and testosterone, among other essential compounds in the biological system. The peptide acts on various steps that are important in the production and secretion of corticosteroids in the adrenal cortex. The peptide is known to accentuate an increase in lipoprotein formation and enhance lipid intake. ACTH is essential in increasing the rate at which cholesterol is transported to the mitochondria where it undergoes activation and hydrolysis process.
When the lipids undergo activation and hydrolysis process, various compounds in the biological system are formed. The ACTH peptide is known to stimulate cholesterol cleavage and the rate-limiting step in the steroidogenesis process determines the amount of steroids formed at a particular time. It is important to note that this is the step where cholesterol is converted to pregnenolone. Deficiency of the ACTH hormone or failure of receptors to bind to the hormone via various binding sites can cause severe defects in a biological system.
Deficiency or failure to respond to hormonal production results in problems on the hypothalamic pituitary axis. Recent studies revealed that deficiency of the hormone usually occurs as part of congenital disorders. This is a case associated with problems such as hypopituitarism. Findings of the research bring a new dimension in modern science and it determines if the peptide can be used to treat Cushing’s syndrome or other disorders.
Moreover, it is essential to note that the peptide is significant in protecting the system from osteonecrosis, especially in the femoral head. Corticosteroid therapy is still under research in the medical world and it will be used to deal with hypotension and vassopressors. ACTH is a very crucial hormone and a lack of sensitivity to the hormone or low production could hamper the expression of sexual characteristics in both males and females.
ACTH 1-39 and Stress
There are different causative agents of stress, in modern life, emotional, environmental and physical stress can contribute to a wide array of effects on the biological system of the organism. The response to these stressors or factors that contribute to stress is essential because it determines how cells will respond to the environment. In situations where the cells are damaged because of excessive stress, cellular damage may result and this will affect other parts of the body, especially those that contribute to cell production .
Studies have shown that the response of a biological system to stressors play a crucial role in the complex system and this is crucial in maintaining homeostasis. Moreover, it aids in maintaining the resting state and how to respond to various stressors. According to the studies, one of the main components in stress system is hypothalamic-pituitary – adrenal axis or HPA. This is one of the essential components in dealing with stress and stress-related conditions.
According to research done on mice, the response to stressful stimulus occurs when the neuronal inputs from the peripheral and central nervous system converge on a minute nucleus in the hypothalamus or the paraventricular nucleolus. When this happens, a signal is induced that the synthesis and release of corticotropin stimulating hormone or CRF occurs. This is a 41- amino acid peptides released into the hypophyseal blood which is then transported to the anterior pituitary gland.
The peptide then binds to the CRH receptors on the corticotropes. Just like other G-coupled proteins, CRH receptors stimulate production of the intracellular messenger or cyclic AMP. The activation of this pathway results in an increased production of proopiomelanocortin or POMC. When this increases in the system, it causes the activation and release of the adrenocorticotropic hormone and beta-endorphins. While CRH is regarded as the main hypothalamic releasing factor for the peptide, other compounds such as vasopressin, norepinephrine and oxytocin also stimulate the production of ACTH in minute volumes.
When ACTH 1-39 is administered in blood, it is carried to the target organ and this is mainly the adrenal cortex. Once the peptide is in the adrenal cortex, it stimulates secretion of various glucocorticoids. Research on mice showed that the peptide accentuates production of corticosterone. Glucocorticoids have immediate metabolic effects on biological systems and in most cases, it stimulates protein catabolism and inhibits peripheral glucose uptake.
ACTH 1-39 and Cellular Response
Studies indicated that the ACTH 1-39 peptide is essential in accentuating response to various aspects of the environment. The hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis is essential in causing response to certain conditions. Glucocorticoids released when the peptide is administered are essential in turning off stress signals entering the system. When the level of glucocorticoids is elevated, it reduces synthesis and release of CRH from the hypothalamus and this suppresses POMC production and release of the adrenocorticotropic hormone from the pituitary gland.
Glucocorticoids are also essential in feeding higher brain centers to allow modulation of neural inputs to the hypothalamus. The finely tuned system allows the organism to respond to various changes in the environment and biological changes allow it to adopt and prevent any kind of cellular damage. When the HPA system is altered, it results in impaired negative feedback stimulation of the glucocorticoids and this causes a negative feedback mechanism and the adopting of change will be difficult for the organism.
When the system is altered, the organism cannot respond to changes effectively. This results in poor mechanical systems and will result in a wide array of conditions such as anxiety disorder, depression, Cushing’s syndrome and anorexia, among other problems. Scientists are looking at ACTH 1-39 as a modern peptide that will help alleviate such conditions in a biological system. Understanding the mechanism will make it easier to bring about changes that will allow the organism to survive any environment that is put in.
Research on mice showed that changes in the glucocorticoids status in the organism changed POMC synthesis and the release of ACTH peptide in the biological system. The contribution of the hypothalamic CRH and peripheral glucocorticoids could not bring about the desired effect in the organism. Studies have been conducted to determine the efficacy and potency of ACTH peptide through alteration of the corticosterone in mice and adrenalectomy to alleviate these conditions. Medical research showed that the peptide could be the ultimate solution for the mice with the condition.
Research on a CHR deficient mouse indicates that the mice exhibited chronic glucocorticoids insufficiency. The study concluded that these mice also had impaired stress response systems. This is quite a negative effect on the working system of the organism. Interestingly, the plasma levels of ACTH were high despite the absence of CRH. This is an interesting phenomenon, especially in modern science and research. The mice brought about new insights in research and scientists used the mice to look into the individual role of the glucocorticoids in ACTH release and POMC synthesis.
Results of the findings showed that CRH-deficient mice showed an alteration and regulation of the peripheral glucocorticoids which in turn regulates POMC and ACTH production. While it is often associated with the increase in secretion and synthesis of the peptide, the evidence of these events are distinct, bringing on a new feature for further research and study.
Several studies conducted on the anterior pituitary gland cultures have shown that an increase in POMC transcription is crucial in accentuating various biological systems which contribute to an enhanced functionality. The identification and characterization of the genomic sequences as well as transcription factors which mediate changes is an essential field that will bring on a new dimension to research and development. The anterior pituitary gland cell cultures showed that the cell cultures are calcium dependent and the type of alteration in the system will result in the increasing the secretion of the hormone.
ACTH activity is calcium-dependent and the scientists are looking at an avenue for circumnavigating various scientific phenomena to improve the activity of the peptide. In vitro studies on mice showed that the data presented on mice proved to be essential in scientific data. Additional studies showed that regulation of ACTH secretion may elucidate the roles of CRH send the mechanisms involved in the secretion of various compounds in a biological system. This is an important phenomenon because the science of peptides is underway and their potential use in various scientific research and study is essential for many aspects of modern science.
ACTH 1-39 and Testosterone Production
on mice showed that adult Leydig cells in steroidogenesis depend on the luteinizing hormone. According to the study, the identification of the factors involved in the regulation of Leydig cells, fetal and adult testes of mice were compared and all the features noted. It is imperative to understand that the dynamics of the study especially when it comes to the environment and mechanism of action play a significant role. According to the study ACTH, a receptor called the melanocortin receptor 2 is responsible for causing various biological systems to accentuate the production of testosterone in a certain environment.
Research done on PCR showed that the MC2R gene was expressed in the fetal testis and the amount was a thousand more than the adult testes. It is imperative to note that neonatal or the fetal testes produce testosterone at a higher rate that adult testes and the research showed cellular isolation and enhanced hormonal production.
Steroidogenic response of the neonatal testes when incubated with ACTH 1-39 was ten times more than adult testis. This is an important experiment because it showed that even at a lower concentration, ACTH 1-39 is able to elicit a reaction. Neither the alpha nor the gamma melanocyte-stimulating hormone affected the overall production of the peptide.
Fetal testosterone levels were at normal levels in mice and the experiment showed that ACTH did not play a significant role in Leydig function. The LH and ACTH regulate testicular steroidogenesis, especially during fetal development. This showed that Leydig cells are sensitive to ACTH 1-39 and the peptide played an essential role in accentuating production of the peptide. Fetal development and production of testicular testosterone is important for cellular growth and development.