Buy Best AOD9604 Peptides Online to Fulfill Your Research Motives
Lipotropin is a hormone that is secreted when POMC or pro-opiomelanocortin undergoes cleaving at the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. The cleavage of the hormone releases two forms: ACTH or adrenocorticotropin and beta-lipotropin. Beta-lipotropin consists of 90 amino acids and it forms the carbonyl carbon in the pro-opiomelanocortin fragment. The AOD9604 peptide is vital because it stimulates the secretion of melanin from melanocytes. Some of the hormones that are a possible fragment of beta-lipotropin include beta-endorphin, gamma-endorphin, alpha-MSH, metenkephalin and alpha-endorphin. Beta-lipotropin mobilizes lipids mainly through lipolysis and steroidogenesis. The synthetic version of the hormone is AOD9604 .
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AOD9604 is a polypeptide fragment of the human growth hormone from amino acid number 177 to 191 (177-191) of the C-terminal. Thereafter, tyrosine is added to the N-terminal. Research showed that AOD9604 has a higher efficacy and potency than HGH because it has the ability to stimulate anti-lipogenic activity and lipolysis or fat burning. Just like human growth hormone, AOD9604 promotes lipolysis and inhibits lipogenesis which is the transfer of excess energy or glucose to peripheral and abdominal organs, thereby increasing weight gain.
The peptide has a molecular formula C78H123N23O23S2 and a molecular mass of 1.82-kilo Daltons. Some of its synonyms include 221231-10-3, AOD9604 and HGH Fragment 177-191. The synthetic development of the polypeptide is credited to Monash University. The researchers were investigating the fat reduction abilities of GH and they came up with a conclusion that it is regulated by a tiny region near one end of the growth hormone molecule.
The region discovered was 177-191 of the amino acid sequence which was less than 10% of the cumulative size of the growth hormone molecule. The AOD9604 polypeptide has no effect on insulin resistance, growth and development. The mechanism of action is through biomimicry of the growth hormone functions. Growth hormone is essential for the regulation of metabolism and has no adverse effects on blood glucose level. Human growth hormone is vital in alleviating peripheral and abdominal fat by inhibiting blood supply to the adipocytes which accentuates cell death. When cell death is initiated, waste products are deposited on the adipocytes. This prompts the system to excrete by promoting the burning of fats in the cells, thereby reducing mass and volume.
Moreover, AOD9604 promotes fat burning process without affecting the intake of food. Moreover, it does not induce growth like IGF-1. The segment of the synthetic polypeptide is still under research for in vitro and in vivo laboratory tests to determine its effectiveness and efficacy in lipolysis. Studies showed that AOD9604 reduces production of insulin. However, the functionality of the peptide largely depends on its information sequence. AOD9604 is the region of high accessibility for proteases and is rich in amino acid proline. This affects the conformational change in the cytoplasmic domain of band 3 and pivots two domains. Research showed that ACTH 1-24 has an adverse effect on the level of cyclic AMP. The level of cAMP is independent of the production of angiotensin II and aldosterone.
AOD9604 and Mice Research
It has been established that the human growth hormone is a lipolytic hormone. However, the mechanism of action is not yet clear. Lipolytic activity of the human growth hormone fragment AOD9604 cannot be underestimated because studies revealed that it can induce chronic in vivo actions through the modulations of expression of β 3-AR. In addition, administration of the peptide has shown to have a significant effect on the overall functionality of the β-ARs. Research findings showed that when the peptide is administered, it increases expression of beta 3-AR which is located in the adipose tissues on the ob/ob in mice. In the BAT or brown adipose tissues, the compound increases, the expression of beta 3-AR and this could contribute to weight loss. An increase in the expression of the hormone is correlated with the decrease in adipocytes mass. Adipocytes are fat cells located in peripheral and visceral organs. It is important to note that the treatment of the peptide in the test subject will result in an enhanced expression of beta 3-AR expression.
AOD9604 is essential in contributing to lean body mass according to research done on mice. This is quite a significant weight loss compared to test subjects that were administered with saline. This showed that when the peptide was absent, it resulted in an increase in fat mass. However, when it was administered, it resulted in an immediate decrease in the mass of the animal or test subject. Previous work done on mice on the administration of the AOD9604 peptide and accentuation of weight loss through administration of peptide can be seen when AOD9604 is administered to the test subject. Previous studies showed that the administration of the peptide contributed to weight loss in mice with weight differences before and after the study. The mechanism of action is through inhibition of nutrients and blood supply to the adipocytes or fat cells.
The human growth hormone and AOD9604 work in synergy to accentuate the reduction of fat cells in peripheral and visceral organs. Administration of the peptide in obese mice showed that it caused a significant decrease in the overall body weight and adipocytes composition. When adiposity is reduced gradually, it results in weight loss and this occurs without any changes to caloric intake. This is crucial because even with a constant food intake, weight loss or the breakdown of adipocytes still occurs. Research studies revealed that the human growth hormone is essential in combating lipogenesis which is a process where fat cells are formed. This could lead to weight gain.
One main aspect to look forward to when conducting any research is to identify the right dosage because any alteration will affect the credibility of the results. It is imperative to understand variations in preparation, concentration and mode of administration of the peptide. The use of the AOD9604 peptide in different laboratory settings should produce results that are in tandem with modern research findings. The peptide can be mediate by the expression of antilipogenic gene or lipolytic activity. β 3-AR is one of the primary lipolytic receptors and when the activity of this receptor is enhanced in rodents, it results in subsequent weight loss. The peptide works through mediation of G-protein coupled receptors binding to the adenylate cyclase which results in the generation of cyclic AMP and stimulation of protein kinase A. The enzyme plays an essential role in the phosphorylation of proteins via a lipolytic cascade and these include hormone-sensitive lipase.
In brown adipose tissues, β 3 AR stimulated the uncoupling of various electron transport chains. This is essential because it enhances the ability of mitochondria to generate in contrast to the production of ATP. This is via dissipation of electron gradient. The mice that lacked this receptor showed a lower rate of resting energy expenditure and lowered rate of fat oxidation than mice in the controlled experiment. The peptide acts in a similar fashion in inducing the effects of body weight regulation and adipose tissue mass. The studies demonstrated that there was quite a significant difference in the operation of signaling pathways which regulated the β 3-AR. The studies indicated that the AOD9604 peptide had no interactions with the human growth hormone receptors. However, it accentuated the death of adipocytes and this resulted in weight loss.
In lean animals, AOD9604 peptide did not affect the epididymal white adipose tissues and expression of β 3 –AR ribonucleic acid. This shows that the peptide does not target fat tissues in lean animals. However, when administered to fat or obese mice, the peptide showed an enhanced activity through accentuation of weight loss and breakdown of fat cells in visceral and peripheral organs. In contrast, the mass of brown adipose tissues reduced significantly with administration of the peptide and expression of β3-AR RNA increased rapidly. This indicated that when there was an increased expression of β3-ARs in BAT, this sensitizes catecholamines which in turn dissipates heat. According to the research done on mice, the peptide reduced both the brown and white adipose tissues mass and increased the expression of β3-AR RNA.
This shows that the peptide increased expression of beta 3-AR which is associated with increased fat metabolism. This is very important in the reduction of the total fat content in a biological system. Obese mice showed a lower level of β 3-AR and it are via the activation of various biological system that increased the level of fat breakdown and overall functionality of the system. The fact that AOD9604 increases expression of important genes which accentuate weight loss in obese mice while causing no significant effect in lean mice is an interesting development. However, it is important to note that the peptide might affect other compounds in the adrenergic pathways which could include β1-ARs, signaling proteins and hormone sensitive lipase. These compounds are expressed in the adipose tissues and are often associated with lipolysis. The essence of the change in beta 3 AR gene expression when the peptide is administered will depend on selective agonist and the mechanism of action that the peptide brings about in accentuating weight loss and breakdown of brown adipose tissues.
Studies conducted on the AOD9604 peptide showed that it was an essential contributor to effects of weight loss observed in mice. When the mice were treated with the peptide, they experienced weight loss which is an interesting phenomenon. Scientists in various platforms are looking for an alternative way of combating obesity. Without proper identification and administration of the peptide. it could result in cellular death or damage of essential cells. To determine whether β3-KO mice were not grossly obese, the mice were treated with a standard diet and observations were made on the extent of cellular activity and multiplication of adipocytes. However, the mice developed late-onset obesity and the peptide decreased the brown adipose tissues deposited on the biological system. The research showed that the plasma glycerol increased when the peptide was administered and this could only be attributed to the presence of AOD9604. This suggested that β3-AR has a net positive effect when AOD9604 was administered and the changes in biological system were crucial for weight loss to occur.
The effects of AOD9604 on adipose tissue is believed that the direct action of the peptide does not have a secondary effect on fat metabolism. However, it accentuates weight loss through inhibition of blood supply and nutrient supply to adipocytes. The cutting of nutrients and blood supply to these cells will cause cells to shrink and eventually die off. Research showed that β3-AR is essential in accentuating lipolysis of brown adipose tissues in the system. The acute effect of AOD9604 on substrate oxidation and energy expenditure rates varies depending on the organism. It is always important to understand the working system of the test animal before injecting the peptide. This will enable you to identify changes in the biological system. When AOD9604 is administered, it showed an increase in glucose oxidation, enhanced fat oxidation and increased energy expenditure compared to other biological systems. Previously, the peptide did not cause any significant change in its activity. However, once it is administered, adipocytes began dying off and resulting in overall weight loss. The AOD9604 peptide elicited a net positive effect in weight loss through inhibition of blood and nutrients supply to adipocytes.