MGF C-Terminal


A novel splice variant of the Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1), also known as IGF-1 Ec in humans and IGF-1Eb in rodents used as a response to the overload or/and damage of muscle growth tissue.

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MGF C-Terminal
MGF C-Terminal

Mechano growth factor is a peptide variation of an endogenously secreted hormone insulin like growth factor and is known as IGF-1 Eb in rodents and IGF-1Eb in humans. Its original name is MGF mainly because the ribonucleic acid form of this peptide is expressed in muscle tissues where there is damage and or overload of the muscle tissue.

The carbonyl terminal is the most important part of the polypeptide for the alternative splicing to occur. For mechano growth factor results to occur, alternative splicing must occur for the activity of the molecule to be visible. Firstly, the reading frame shifts on specific carbonyl terminal in a sequence called E-domain led by exon 5. This is the first part of the exon 6.

Since the molecule contains E domain, MGF can act on various muscles differently without the help of the other part of the polypeptide. Moreover, it can elicit unique effect such as promotion of satellite cell proliferation and differentiation.

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The molecular mass is 2888 Daltons and it is important to note that the most active component is crucial for the activity of the entire molecule. There are various areas where its research is focused on and mechano growth factor will help alleviate problems. These include

Age -related Muscle Loss and Mechano Growth Factor (MGF)

MGF has shown abilities to prevent a number of physiological functions such as muscle loss. There are numerous functions that are important in which MGF exerts its effects. Additional copies of MGF complimentary DNA are expressed in plasmid vectors which in turn acts by protecting facial neurons.

One common problem associated with failure of facial neurons is sarcopenia. MGF has shown potential to alleviate these problems. However, there is on-going research to ensure that the MGF peptides are safe for consumption before they are approved.

The mechanism of action of mechano factor growth in promoting hyperplasia follows a basic principle. When there is a mechanical overload on the muscles, the IGF-1 gene is accentuated and this is differentially spliced when the body responds to the effect.

At first, it is spliced to produce a predominant variant IGF-1 Ec commonly called MGF splice variant of IGF-1. The early splicing is important in stimulating satellite cells into active mode. When satellite cells are in activated mode, the extra-undamaged nuclei begins to grow into muscle cells, fiber and thereafter tissue. Appearance of MGF is essential in initiating the up regulation of new protein synthesis.

After the first splicing of IGF-1 into mechano growth factor, the production changes to production of systemic release of IGF-1Ea in the hepatocytes. This also has a positive feedback on protein synthesis. Expression of insulin like growth factor splice variant over the course causes healing and regrowth of new muscles and myoblasts.

Consequent Research on Activity of Mechano Growth Factor  


Mechano growth factor or MGF has the ability to cause a wasted muscle tissue to grow and improve through activation of muscle stem cells and increase protein synthesis. As indicated earlier, the liver produces two types of MGF splice variant: the IGF-1 Ea and IGF-1Ec.

MGF differs from IGF- 1Ea in that it has a different peptide sequence that is responsible for replenishment of satellite cells on skeletal muscle. In this context, it is longer acting and more anabolic than the other counterpart is.

After training or muscle overload, the IGF-1 gene is spliced to form the MGF. This causes local muscle repair through activation of stem cells and other essential anabolic processes such as increased nitrogen retention and protein synthesis.

After regular training, muscle cells are damaged and in some cases, they break down.  Muscle cells need to reform through the use of the two splice variants of mechano growth factor variants. The liver is an important component in helping the muscles recover from damage and injuries.

It is imperative to note that muscles are post-mitotic tissues and therefore this replacement does not mean repair. If the cells are not repaired during their early phase, they may die and muscles will get weaker and smaller. The action of MGF plays a crucial role in replenishing the pool of muscle stem cells and the polypeptide is produced in pulses once there is an injury.

According to studies, synthetic injections of the polypeptide shows mechano growth factor results as it increases muscle tissue cells through stimulation of satellite cells to proliferate, differentiate and mature to form muscle fibers.

One major features of MGF is short half-life. The MGF polypeptide has a half-life of five to seven minutes. As per research, serum and biological system will diminish its efficacy and effectiveness if an ultimate solution is not found. There is another potent and efficient form of MGF.

This is called PEG MGF or PEGylated mechano growth factor. Addition of polyethene glycol is essential in preventing degradation of the polypeptide. Glycol is a non-toxic material. The material increases the half-life of the MGF C-terminal polypeptide by slowing down or preventing the degradation process.

Recent Research and Studies on Mechano Growth Factor

mechano growth factor

There have been numerous mechano growth factor results. This has prompted researchers, doctors and other scientists to look for ways in which the component can be used in drug design and therapy.

Insulin like growth factor 1 expression is altered by two IGF-1 messenger RNA splice variants and myocardial pathophysiology. Both components have been detected in mice, mechano growth factor and IGF-2 Ea.

Recent studies revealed that the expression of IGF-1 gene transcripts in the myocardium of the rate from one hour to 8 weeks after myocardial infarction induced by the left anterior coronary artery ligation.

Moreover, the characterization of MGF E and IGF-2 peptide activity and their modes of signaling in H9C2 myocardial cells in rats are possible through the analysis of data.

MGF and IGF-1 Ea expression is significantly increased. These occur at translational and transcriptional levels in the late post-infarction period mainly from 4-8 weeks. Measuring of serum levels of the infarcted rats decreased up to 24 hours to one week.

However, it remained unaltered throughout the experimental phase of 4 to 8 weeks. Moreover, specific anti- IGF-1 receptor neutralizing antibody failed in its process to block the synthetic MGF E peptide activity. However, it blocked the activity of IGF-1 completely on its effects on the proliferation of H9C2 cells. In addition, synthetic MGF E peptide does not activate Akt phosphorylation on the other hand, activated ERK 1 or 2in H9C2 are activated.

All these mechano growth factor results and data are geared towards explaining the expression of IGF-1 in the repair of myocardial cells. It is important to note that MGF E peptide activity may be mediated by IGF-1R independent pathway.

Recent research also indicated that two clones of hybridonoma cells extracted secreted antibodies to the mechano factor and has been developed by cell fusion technique. The monoclonal antibodies of single clone can recognize human mechano growth factor peptide which is absent in the insulin like growth 1 and is made up of amino acids from number 87 to 111.

When enzyme linked immunoabsorbent assay or ELISA was utilized, it showed that there is an enhanced affinity for binding with constants and at full strength at 87-111 segment. These can be used in the quantification process of MGF via sandwich type assay.

Although the nomenclature surrounding MGF is a little complicated, numerous studies have been published to define MGF/IGF-1 Eb in muscle repair and survival.

The expression of IGF-1 Eb messenger ribonucleic acids during muscle recovery after injury has happened. However, there are other studies which try to show that Eb peptide derived from pro-IGF-1 is responsible for the recovery process.

There have been further studies on satellite cell activation and an established fact is that there is a direct correlation on the level of mechano growth factor and establishment of cellular activity.

When MGF is directly administered to C2C12 myoblasts, the committed myoblasts precursors increase the proliferation the mechano growth factor has shown to play a crucial role in this context. The increase in IGF-1 Eb messenger ribonucleic acid correlates with activation of satellite cells and markers of satellite cells tend to show mechano growth factor results.

Mechano Growth Factor as a Neuroprotective Agent


There is evidence that MGF has neuroprotective capabilities. In this study, rats were used as subjects. They had IGF-1 E b and complimentary deoxyribonucleic acids as well on the carbonyl terminal region. The MGF polypeptide was injected on facial muscles of rats. Prior to this, the muscles had received a MGF plasmid injection showed complete protection from motor neuron.

A similar study showed that injection of the same plasmids prevented the loss of motor neurons and muscle force. It is evident that the immunoreactive bands of both the polyclonal body were present and they are effective in preventing motor loss.

Mechano growth factor is expressed in the cellular level in animal test subjects. According to recent studie, the peptide has numerous characters. These include the following:

  1. Terminal differentiation inhibition
    Mechano growth factor is essential in slowing down the differentiation of cells in the last stage. This is the most important part of cell differentiation because it the part where the cell loses its functionality. The feature ensures that the MGF peptide contributes to the longevity of cells.
  2. Enhancement of myoblasts differentiation
    MGF C-terminal  is known to boost the creation and development of muscle cells. This is important because it allows animal cells to recover from injuries and other muscular damage resulting from environmental and internal factors.
  3. Extended half-life of secretions
    Scientific study conducted on mice indicated that the presence of the peptide is important in enhancing the growth of muscular and skeletal cells. According to the findings, administration of the peptide increased the ability of the hormones produced to be effective in producing new muscle cells. This feature is important because it boosts the test subject’s ability to produce more myoblasts and enhance their functionality. Research also showed that the MGF peptide can increase the response to various kinds of stimuli. In some cases, it prefers the signal transduction to be active and function as expected.

Postulated Benefits of Mechano Growth Factor


Research on mechano growth factor has revealed that the overall functionality of the mechano growth peptide can be enhanced by improving its half-life and the peptide and accentuating its components. Research showed that mechano growth factor has the ability to increase secretions from cells and an ability to inhibit terminal differentiation is a key area of interest in modern research.

When the half-life of endogenous secretions is increased, it tends to bring a new dimension and the expression of hormonal activity in cells. The characteristics of the MGF C-terminal peptide have made it one of the most sought after peptide as it increases the production of hormones per cell.

If the interval time of secretion in between cells is increased, then the skeletal and muscle cells can perform well and enable a more efficient injury recovery. With skeletal functionality increased, the MGF C-terminal peptide is more efficient and the production of bone minerals occurs more rapidly unlike the conventional production.

This feature makes the peptide a component under research. It would allow the animal test subjects to increase bone density and skeletal muscle production.

Research showed that mechano growth factor has the ability to choose its signal transduction pathways that it can activate. Depending on its preference and the ability of the MGF C-terminal peptide to accentuate various pathways, it can enhance the production of a certain hormone or cell.

Operational mechanics of the peptide would enable it to stabilize an animal in cases of ischemic episodes and this would include cardiac arrest, stroke, angina pectoris and lack of oxygen to different vessels after exposure to traumatic event or injury.

Additional Information

Weight 0.005 g